Rubella is a contagious viral disease caused by the rubella virus. It is mainly transmitted by respiratory droplets from an infected person. Although often mild, rubella can have serious consequences when contracted by pregnant women, as it can cause complications for the fetus, known as congenital rubella syndrome. Common symptoms of rubella include a reddish skin rash, low-grade fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes. Global prevention efforts include vaccination programs aimed at reducing the prevalence of the disease and preventing its complications, particularly among pregnant women. Virological surveillance and classification of various rubella virus genotypes play a crucial role in the understanding and effective management of this disease globally.

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